Tuesday, April 1, 2014

My Case

My case that I will be exploring in order to illustrate my argument are the points emphasized in Cathy Davidson's book Now You See It.  

I intend to focus on her chapters Project Classroom Makeover and The Changing Worker.  In Project Classroom Makeover, Davidson discusses how students of Duke University aided the introduction of iPod apps into classroom by working with professors and designers to create educational applications allowing students to learn in new ways previously not available.  Also in the chapter, Davidson discusses why the iPod experiment at Duke was so successful by saying, "It was an investment in a new form of attention, one that didn't require the student to always face forward, learn from on high, memorize what was already given, or accept knowledge as something predetermined and passively absorbed" (Davidson 173).  I will also be using my other sources to emphasize the varying view points of both student and instructor and how they view the integration of social media into the classroom from a professional perspective.  Additionally, I will provide analyzation as to how preparing a student to use social media for various reasons can aid them in workplace.

Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Working Bibliography

Scholarly Sources

Bayne, Kendra S., and Beth A. Cianfrone. "The Effectiveness Of Social Media Marketing: The Impact Of Facebook Status Updates On A Campus Recreation Event." Recreational Sports Journal 37.2 (2013): 147. Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File. Web. 2 Mar. 2014. Davidson, Cathy. Now You See It: How Technology and Brain Science Will Transform Schools and Business for the 21st Century. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print. Draskovic, Nikola, Martina Caic, and Ana Kustrak. "Croatian Perspective(s) On The Lecturer-Student Interaction Through Social Media." International Journal Of Management Cases 15.4 (2013): 331-339. Business Source Premier. Web. 24 Feb. 2014. Lin, Yu-Ru, and David Lazer. "Watching How Ideas Spread Over Social Media." Leonardo. 46.3 (2013): 277. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/23468280>. Mergel, Ines, and Stuart Brestschneider. "A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government." Public Administration Review. 73.3 (2013): 390-400. Web. 2 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/42002941>. Wohn, Donghee, Nicole Ellison, M. Laeeq Khan, Ryan Fewins-Bliss, and Rebecca Gray. "The role of social media in shaping first-generation high school students' college aspirations: A social capital lens."Computers and Education. 63. (2013): 424-436. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131513000080>.

Research Proposal

Incorporating Social Media into the Classroom
Topic
The popularity of social media has been on the rise for the past decade.  Additionally, during the past decade, there has especially been a shift away from the use of paper books and papers and a shift more towards electronic books and paper submission via the internet.   The original intention of social media was simply communication, however, over the years, social media has been used for a variety of other purposes.  Essentially, social media has become a part of life for many Americans beyond the social aspect.  These purposes include a range from networking for jobs to spreading important messages from universities and government.  Social media is especially popular among college students.   It can be said that the overwhelming popularity of social media has become a distraction to current college students.  In this paper I will explore the benefits and challenges of incorporating social media into the classroom as an effective resource for education.  I will focus on how social media can be beneficial to classroom settings, rather than the detrimental effects, but those will be briefly mentioned and explained.
Research Question
Is it beneficial to incorporate social media into higher level education classrooms?  What are the potential challenges of incorporating social media outlets into these classrooms?  What are the implications beyond higher level education?
Theory
Throughout this research paper, I will be analyzing facts and opinions from students and educators regarding social media in the classroom.  I will be able to use this to analyze what outcomes can arise from the use of social media and determine if they are detrimental or beneficial.  Additionally, I will discuss the possible complications and limitations of using social media in an educational setting.  I will briefly discuss why the rise of social media is important in education and beyond education in the workforce.  Furthermore, there will be analysis of different frameworks and platforms available and the new communication possibilities presented by the use of social media.   There will be a brief mention of the original history of social media outlets, with a focus on how they are viewed by the public.  I will also analyze how cheating may occur by using social media and focus on this as one of the main risks.
Research Plan
I plan on conducting my research using the Rutgers University Library resources to find scholarly articles, journals and books to find information regarding my topic.  I will also conduct interviews with college students and educational instructors for their opinion and insight on incorporating social media into higher level education classrooms.  
Working Bibliography
Bayne, Kendra S., and Beth A. Cianfrone. "The Effectiveness Of Social Media Marketing: The 
Impact Of Facebook Status Updates On A Campus Recreation Event." Recreational Sports 
Journal 37.2 (2013): 147. Publisher Provided Full Text Searching File. Web. 2 Mar. 2014.


Davidson, Cathy. Now You See It: How Technology and Brain Science Will Transform 
Schools and Business for the 21st Century. New York: Penguin Group, 2011. Print.


Draskovic, Nikola, Martina Caic, and Ana Kustrak. "Croatian Perspective(s) On The
Lecturer-Student Interaction Through Social Media." International Journal Of Management Cases 15.4 (2013): 331-339. Business Source Premier. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

Lin, Yu-Ru, and David Lazer. "Watching How Ideas Spread Over Social Media." Leonardo. 46.3

(2013): 277. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/23468280>.

Mergel, Ines, and Stuart Brestschneider. "A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media 
Use in Government." Public Administration Review. 73.3 (2013): 390-400. Web. 
2 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/42002941>.


Wohn, Donghee, Nicole Ellison, M. Laeeq Khan, Ryan Fewins-Bliss, and Rebecca Gray. "The
role of social media in shaping first-generation high school students' college aspirations:
A social capital lens."Computers and Education. 63. (2013): 424-436. Web. 2 Mar. 
2014. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131513000080>.

Literature Review #3


Lin, Yu-Ru. "Watching How Ideas Spread Over Social Media." Leonardo. 46.3 (2013): 277. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/23468280>.

Summary:
Social media, like Twitter, have been widely used for exchanging information, opinions and emotions about events happening across the world. The authors introduce a new visualization tool for tracing the process of information diffusion on social media in real time. The design highlights the social, spatiotemporal processes of diffusion based on a sunflower metaphor whose seeds are often dispersed far away. The design facilitates an understanding of when, where and how a piece of information is dispersed for large-scale events, including campaigns and earthquakes, as a tool witnessing today's information consumption and dispersion in the wild.


Authors:
Yu-Ru Lin  Yu-Ru Lin received her Ph.D. in Computer Science with a concentration in Arts Media and Engineering from Arizona State University. Her research interests have been in analysis and visualization of interpersonal activities in online social networks ñ in particular, large-scale community dynamics, high-dimensional social information summarization and representation. Her current research focuses on extracting human communities that collaborate around certain topics or shared media artifacts. She has proposed matrix and tensor based analytical methods for analyzing community structures and evolutions in time-varying heterogeneous social networks, and developed visualizations to support community discovery in the context of everyday social media use.

Value: 
This journal article can provide background information as to how social media has become so popular.  This information may also be used to describe how social media can become popular as an educational tool.  Additionally, we can understand how social media is helpful for spreading knowledge across social media.  

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Literature Review #2

Mergel, Ines, and Stuart Brestschneider. "A Three-Stage Adoption Process for Social Media Use in Government." Public Administration Review. 73.3 (2013): 390-400. Web. 2 Mar. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/42002941>.

Summary:
Social media applications are slowly diffusing across all levels of government. The organizational dynamics underlying adoption and use decisions follow a process similar to that for previous waves of new information and communication technologies. The authors suggest that the organizational diffusion of these types of new information and communication technologies, initially aimed at individual use and available through markets, including social media applications, follows a three-stage process. First, agencies experiment informally with social media outside of accepted technology use policies. Next, order evolves from the first chaotic stage as government organizations recognize the need to draft norms and regulations. Finally, organizational institutions evolve that clearly outline appropriate behavior, types of interactions, and new modes of communication that subsequently are formalized in social media strategies and policies. For each of the stages, the authors provide examples and a set of propositions to guide future research.


Authors:
Ines Mergel is assistant professor ofpublic administration and international affairs in the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University.  She is a senior research fellow in the Center for Technology and Information Policy and the Campbell Institute of Public Affairs.  Her research focuses on the adoption tactics and strategies of new technologies in the public sector. She frequently blogs about these topics at http://inesmergel.wordpress.com.

Stuart I. Bretschneider is the Maxwell Professor of Public Administration and International Affairs and the Laura J. and L. Douglas Meredith Professor for Teaching Excellence at Syracuse University. He is also director of the Center for Technology and Information Policy. His research focuses on information technology in government, revenue forecasting, public management, environmental policy, and science and technology policy.

Key Terms:
Diffusion theory looks at how the communication of innovation leads to growing numbers of adopters over time in aggregate over a population of potential users. Because the diffusion process unfolds over time, it is often organized into stages reflecting different points in the process.

Open Government Initiative was created to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, public participation and collaboration.  It was created by President Obama in order to strengthen democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in the United States Government.  

Quotes:
"The side effects of this form of informal, unsanctioned experimentation are that, in some cases, multiple experiments are started in different and potentially disconnected locations within agencies.  Many different entrepreneurs emerge as the use of social media among their diverse constituencies increases. Subunits set up their own Twitter accounts or create multiple Facebook pages, reflecting the need to correspond with specific subject-matter experts through a dedicated news stream." (394)

"Stage 2 is characterized by informal standards that emerge as a result of unintended consequences, for example, when employees post inappropriate content and receive negative press coverage or backlash from the social media audience. To avoid future pitfalls, employees involved in social media eff orts start to agree on and co-write informal standards, describe best practices to provide guidelines, and pay increased attention to their peers across government." (394). 


Value
This source may provide answers and solutions to questions and problems of formality proposed by the research of Draskovic and company.  This source may also provide a possible framework to follow for instructors to incorporate media into their classrooms.  This source may also provide insight on the effectiveness of social media when used beyond its original intentions.  

Literature Review #1

Draskovic, Nikola, Martina Caic, and Ana Kustrak. "Croatian Perspective(S) On The Lecturer-Student Interaction Through Social Media." International Journal Of Management Cases 15.4 (2013): 331-339. Business Source Premier. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.

Summary:
Connecting social media and higher education has allowed communication to occur at an informal level, while remaining, to some degree, educational.  Social media has enhanced communication possibilities and ease across the disciplines.  This article provides a study of Croatian higher education lecturers and students.  By performing interviews, the authors were able to gather opinions of how both parties viewed the use of social media at a higher education level.  The research showed that students "highly appreciate social media as a communicational and content sharing tool...lecturers prefer to limit interaction via more formal applications" (Draskovic, Caic, Kustrak 1).  

Authors:
Nikola Draskovic is a professor at Zagreb School of Economic and Management.  In 2002, Draskovic earned a PhD in marketing.  Draskovic has written many peer reviewed journals with a focus on marketing.  Nikola Draskovic is knowledegable on the topic of social media and higher level education because he understands marketing and the economy, which can be related to technology and new ways to use old technologies, as well as higher education as he is a higher level educational instructor.  

Martina Caic is a teaching assistant at Zagreb School of Economic and Management.  During her undergraduate education, Caic made the dean's list of most successful students for four years in a row.  After graduating ZSEM in 2009, Caic continued to the graduate program offered by the same school.  Martina Caic earned her graduate MBA on the topic of  "Social media marketing strategies and crowdsourcing projects."  This suggests that she has a deep understanding of marketing as well as the possibilities of social media.  

Key Terms
Social media encourages participation from all who are interested by means of voting, commenting and sharing information.  There is also a focus on conversation in social media, which allows for communities to form which are often connected by various resources and participants.  Social media is present in a multitude of formats and interaction possibilities.  

Learning management systems are preferred by professors more than students.  LMS maintains a formal relationship between student and instructor by limiting communication to two-way, rather than open for multiple participants.  Examples include Blackboard and WebCT.  

Quotes:

"[Lecturers] are well aware of the popularity of social media among students, especially on mobile platforms, such as smartphones and tablets. Therefore, they consider social media as a communication and collaboration with a significant potential." (6)

"Most of [the students] welcome the idea to use some form of social media for communicating with lecturers and some of them even have positive experience. However, some [student] respondents consider communication through social media too informal." (7)

"In overall, students are more motivated to interact with their lecturers through social media, while lecturers showed some level of concern and scepticism [sic] towards the concept. The resentment is mostly grounded in their belief that the lecturer-student relationship needs to remain professional, which implies the use of formal communication channels. Lecturers are also concerned that more informal communication via social media might erode their authority." (8)

Value:
This article provides information about the generation gap between lecturers and students.  This also may provide insight into challenges of incorporating social media into the classroom due to lack of familiarity with the various outlets available (from the viewpoint of the lecturers).  The article also provides insight of how social media may lead to more informal communication between student and professor, suggesting a lack of authority present.  

Privatization and Social Media in the Classroom

Social Media in the classroom does not directly relate to privatization.  However, a connection can be drawn between the two by focusing on technology advances and a movement toward paperless, more internet-based sharing systems.  “Another force, which may have the greatest capacity to change higher education, is new technologies…It means that the age of textbooks is ending. The days of teaching from the old yellow lecture notes is approaching an abrupt conclusion. Already, private sector companies are developing products in response, from publishers like Mc-Graw-Hill to new software companies like Blackboard” (Levine 137).  It is possible that instead of using costly software programs, professors can turn the free discussion forums commonly offered by a multitude of social media outlets.  

As technologies progress, there is the common turn towards "green" or eco-friendly alternatives.  Rather than having a student type and print out an opinion piece, the professors may ask them to post it on a blog or engage students in a facebook group discussion.  Social media allows for analytic discussions across multiple subjects, such as English and history, which cannot be facilitated by a student answering questions which only have one correct answer, such that in the cases of maths and sciences.  However, social media can also be used in order for a more in depth discussion to occur of how and why an answer appears a way it does in the maths and sciences.  All in all, social media can be used as a free outlet for students, rather than paying for potentially costly programs which have been created to increase the revenue for private sector companies.  



Levine, Arthur. "6: Privatization In Higher Education." Privatizing Education: 'Can the School Marketplace Deliver Freedom of Choice, Efficiency, Equity & Social Cohesion?'. 133. n.p.: Perseus Books, LLC, 2001. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 24 Feb. 2014.